3. Physical Science
– Matter and Its Interactions
Objective 1: Develop a model to describe that matter is made of particles too small to be seen.
Objective 2: Measure and graph quantities to provide evidence that regardless of the type of change that occurs when heating, cooling, or mixing substances, the total weight of matter is conserved.
Objective 3: Make observations and measurements to identify materials based on their properties.
Objective 4: Conduct an investigation to determine whether the mixing of two or more substances results in new substances.
PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter
- Matter of any type can be subdivided into particles that are too small to see, but even then the matter still exists and can be detected by other means. A model shows that gases are made from matter particles that are too small to see and are moving freely around in space can explain many observations, including the inflation and shape of a balloon; the effects of air on larger particles or objects. (5-PS1-1)
- The amount (weight) of matter is conserved when it changes form, even in transitions in which it seems to vanish. (5-PS1-2)
- Measurements of a variety of properties can be used to identify materials. (Boundary: At this grade level, mass and weight are not distinguished, and no attempt is made to define the unseen particles or explain the atomic-scale mechanism of evaporation and condensation.) (5-PS1-3)
PS1.B: Chemical Reactions
- When two or more different substances are mixed, a new substance with different properties may be formed. (5-PS1-4)
- No matter what reaction or change in properties occurs, the total weight of the substances does not change. (Boundary: Mass and weight are not distinguished at this grade level.) (5-PS1-2)
Cause and Effect
- Cause and effect relationships are routinely identified, tested, and used to explain change. (5-PS1-4)
Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
- Natural objects exist from the very small to the immensely large. (5-PS1-1)
- Standard units are used to measure and describe physical quantities such as weight, time, temperature, and volume. (5-PS1-2),(5-PS1-3)
Connections to Nature of Science
Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems
Science assumes consistent patterns in natural systems. (5-PS1-2)
– Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Objective: Support an argument that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed down.
PS2.B: Types of Interactions
The gravitational force of Earth acting on an object near Earth’s surface pulls that object toward the planet’s center. (5-PS2-1)
Cause and Effect
Cause and effect relationships are routinely identified and used to explain change. (5-PS2-1)
Objective: Use models to describe that energy in animals’ food (used for body repair, growth, motion, and to maintain body warmth) was once energy from the sun.
PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life
- The energy released [from] food was once energy from the sun that was captured by plants in the chemical process that forms plant matter (from air and water). (5-PS3-1)
LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms
Food provides animals with the materials they need for body repair and growth and the energy they need to maintain body warmth and for motion. (secondary to 5-PS3-1)
Energy and Matter
Energy can be transferred in various ways and between objects. (5-PS3-1)